We describe the isolation and characterization of the gene encoding the mouse high affinity Fc receptor Fc gamma RI. Using a mouse cDNA Fc gamma RI probe four unique overlapping genomic clones were isolated and were found to encode the entire 9 kb of the mouse Fc gamma RI gene. Sequence analysis of the gene showed that six exons account for the entire Fc gamma RI cDNA sequences including the 5'- and 3'-untranslated sequences. The first and second exons encode the signal peptide; exons 3, 4, and 5 encode the extracellular Ig binding domains; and exon 6 encodes the transmembrane domain, the cytoplasmic region, and the entire 3'-untranslated sequence. This exon pattern is similar to Fc gamma RIII and Fc epsilon RI but differs from the related Fc gamma RII gene which contains 10 exons and encodes the b1 and b2 Fc gamma RII. Southern blot analysis had shown that the mouse Fc gamma RI gene is a single copy gene with no RFLP in inbred strains of mice, but analysis of an intersubspecies backcross of mice showed that unlike other mouse FcR genes which are on mouse chromosome 1 the locus encoding Fc gamma RI, termed Fcg1, is located on chromosome 3. Interestingly, the Fcg1 locus is located near the end of a region with known linkage homology to human chromosome 1. Analysis of human x rodent somatic cell hybrid cell lines indicates that the human FCG1 locus encoding the human Fc gamma RI maps to chromosome I and therefore possibly linked to other FcR genes on this chromosome. These results suggest that the linkage relationships among these genes in the human genome are not preserved in the mouse.