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All-cause mortality before and after DAA availability among people living with HIV and HCV: An international comparison between 2010 and 2019.

Requena MB, Protopopescu C, Stewart AC, van Santen DK, Klein MB, Jarrin I, Berenguer J, Wittkop L, Salmon D, Rauch A, Prins M, van der Valk M, Sacks-Davis R, Hellard ME, Carrieri P, Lacombe K; on behalf of the InCHEHC Collaboration

  • Published 23 Feb 2024

  • Volume 124

  • Pagination 104311

  • DOI 10.1016/j.drugpo.2023.104311



Among people living with HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV), people who inject drugs (PWID) have historically experienced higher mortality rates. Direct-acting antivirals (DAA), which have led to a 90 % HCV cure rate independently of HIV co-infection, have improved mortality rates. However, DAA era mortality trends among PWID with HIV/HCV remain unknown. Using data from the International Collaboration on Hepatitis C Elimination in HIV Cohorts (InCHEHC), we compared pre/post-DAA availability mortality changes in three groups: PWID, men who have sex with men (MSM), and all other participants.


We included InCHEHC participants with HIV/HCV followed between 2010 and 2019 in Canada, France, the Netherlands, Spain, and Switzerland. All-cause mortality hazard was compared in the three groups, using Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for sex, age, advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis, and pre/post DAA availability.


Of the 11,029 participants, 76 % were men, 46 % were PWID, baseline median age was 46 years (interquartile range [IQR] = 40;51), and median CD4 T-cell count was 490 cells/mm3 (IQR = 327;689). Over the study period (median follow-up = 7.2 years (IQR = 3.7;10.0)), 6143 (56 %) participants received HCV treatment, 4880 (44 %) were cured, and 1322 participants died (mortality rate = 1.81/100 person-years (PY) [95 % confidence interval (CI)=1.72–1.91]).

Overall, PWID had higher mortality rates than MSM (2.5/100 PY [95 % CI = 2.3–2.6] vs. 0.8/100 PY [95 % CI = 0.7–0.9], respectively). Unlike women with other transmission modes, those who injected drugs had a higher mortality hazard than men who did not inject drugs and men who were not MSM (adjusted Hazard-Ratio (aHR) [95 % CI] = 1.3[1.0–1.6]). Post-DAA availability, mortality decreased among MSM in the Netherlands, Spain, and Switzerland and increased among PWID in Canada (aHR [95 % CI] = 1.73 [1.15–2.61]).


Post-DAA availability, all-cause mortality did not decrease in PWID. Determinants of cause-specific deaths (drug-related, HIV-related, or HCV-related) need to be identified to explain persistently high mortality among PWID in the DAA era