Mannan, oxidatively coupled to recombinant protein antigens, has here been tested as a possible adjuvant for the production of antibody on the mucosa. Given intranasally, but not intraperitoneally, mannan markedly enhanced the production of IgA, IgG1 and IgG2a in the serum, and IgA locally in the lung and at remote mucosal sites, including tears, vaginal and salivary secretions. Oxidative coupling was critical to its action, since neither mannan simply mixed with protein nor mannan-protein conjugates which had been reduced by treatment with sodium borohydride, acted as adjuvants. Oxidatively coupled mannan was compared with the widely studied mucosal adjuvant, cholera toxin (CT). The use of oxidised mannan as an adjuvant induced better responses than CT judged by the induction of IgA in serum, vaginal washings and saliva. Thus, oxidised mannan, which is non-toxic and can be administered without injection, is a suitable adjuvant coupled with protective antigens for vaccinating against a number of infections that occur via the mucous membranes.