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Impact of harm reduction practice on the use of non-prescribed performance and image-enhancing drugs: The PUSH! Audit.

Eu B, Dawe J, Dunn M, Lee K, Griffiths S, Bloch M, Baker D, Tuck Meng Soo C, Bisshop F, Stoové M

  • Journal Australian journal of general practice

  • Published 07 Apr 2023

  • Volume 52

  • ISSUE 4

  • Pagination 197-202

  • DOI 10.31128/AJGP-04-22-6402


The PUSH! Audit was a cross-sectional study performed from May 2019 to May 2021. With each audit submitted, general practitioners (GPs) were asked about the impact of their engagement with their patients.

In all, 144 audit responses were collected, with 81.6% of audits showing a change in behaviour. The changes noted were better monitoring (71.3%), treatment of adverse effects (64.4%), modified use (44.4%) and stopped use (12.2%).

This study asking GPs about outcomes with each of their patients using non-prescribed PIEDs has shown significant changes in behaviour. There has been no previous work done to evaluate the potential impact of such engagement. The findings of this exploratory study of the PUSH! Audit suggest harm reduction for people who use non-prescribed PIEDs when engaged with GP clinics.