To combat emerging drug resistance in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) the World Health Organization and GMS countries have committed to eliminating malaria in the region by 2030. The overall approach includes providing universal access to diagnosis and treatment of malaria, and sustainable preventive measures, including vector control. Topical repellents are an intervention that can be used to target residual malaria transmission not covered by long lasting insecticide nets and indoor residual spraying. Although there is strong evidence that topical repellents protect against mosquito bites, evidence is not well established for the effectiveness of repellents distributed as part of malaria control activities in protecting against episodes of malaria. A common approach to deliver malaria services is to assign Village Health Volunteers (VHVs) to villages, particularly where limited or no services exist. The proposed trial aims to provide evidence for the effectiveness of repellent distributed through VHVs in reducing malaria.
The study is an open stepped-wedge cluster-randomised controlled trial randomised at the village level. Using this approach, repellent (N,N-diethyl-benzamide - 12% w/w, cream) is distributed by VHVs in villages sequentially throughout the malaria transmission season. Villages will be grouped into blocks, with blocks transitioned monthly from control (no repellent) to intervention states (to receive repellent) across 14 monthly intervals in random order). This follows a 4-week baseline period where all villages do not receive repellent. The primary endpoint is defined as the number of individuals positive for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections diagnosed by a rapid diagnostic test. Secondary endpoints include symptomatic malaria, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-detectable Plasmodium spp. infections, molecular markers of drug resistance and antibodies specific for Plasmodium spp. parasites.
This study has been approved by relevant institutional ethics committees in Myanmar and Australia. Results will be disseminated through workshops, conferences and peer-reviewed publications. Findings will contribute to a better understanding of the optimal distribution mechanisms of repellent, context specific effectiveness and inform policy makers and implementers of malaria elimination programs in the GMS.
Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ( ACTRN12616001434482 ). Retrospectively registered 14th October 2016.