The occult progression of tumors within the peritoneal cavity results in the late diagnosis and high mortality rate of ovarian cancer. An improved understanding of the molecular biology of ovarian cancer has led to the discovery of novel molecules as targets for the treatment of ovarian cancer. This review highlights the latest advance of mucins, which are upregulated in cancer cells and interact with the epidermal growth factor receptor family to regulate cell behavior via signaling pathways associated with malignant transformation, invasion and metastasis. Disruption of these molecules might represent a novel therapeutic approach in treating ovarian cancer. We also describe the recent development and validation of the most studied mucins (MUC1 and MUC16), ErbB-2 (Her2/neu) and folate binding protein as target-based immunotherapy of ovarian cancer.