Awarded her PhD at Monash University, Professor Tachedjian received an NHMRC CJ Martin Fellowship to undertake postdoctoral studies at Columbia University in New York with Professor Stephen Goff on retroviral replication.
In 2002, Professor Tachedjian was recruited to Burnet Institute. She was awarded an NHMRC RD Wright Career Development Award in 2003 and an NHMRC Senior Research Fellowship’s in 2009 and in 2017.
A virologist combining interdisciplinary basic, translational and clinical research to identify and develop effective drug-based strategies to prevent and control emerging pathogens including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). She has made major contributions to HIV reverse transcriptase, antivirals, drug resistance and HIV prevention research. She was awarded the Fenner Prize in 2012 by the Australian Society for Microbiology for her distinguished contributions to research in Microbiology.
Her current areas of interest include discovering a new HIV drug class using fragment-based drug design and understanding the role of the genital microbiota and their metabolites on adverse sexual (e.g. HIV) and reproductive health outcomes. She also has an interest in bat retroviruses and restriction factors.
Major research findings include discovering that a metabolite produced by optimal vaginal microbiota has potent HIV virucidal activity and immune modulatory effects on cervicovaginal epithelial cells that could explain in part why optimal vaginal lactobacilli are associated with decreased susceptibility to HIV (US Patent awarded in 2017).
Discovered new building blocks for drugs that target the HIV reverse transcriptase (RT) by mechanisms distinct to antiretrovirals used for HIV treatment and prevention as well as mutations in HIV RT that confer resistance to antiretroviral drugs which are incorporated in genotyping algorithms for predicting HIV drug resistance.
Played major roles in the preclinical development of microbicides to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV and the completion of a phase I clinical study (SPL7013-003) to determine the retention of the dendrimer microbicide VivaGel after vaginal dosing in healthy women.
Discovered that bats, which represent one of three significant reservoirs for deadly zoonotic viruses, encode APOBEC3, a major class of intrinsic antiviral genes, that are the most numerous and diverse of any mammal reported to date.
She developed a yeast two-hybrid assay for studying the interaction between the two subunits of the RT enzyme, which was patented. This led to the discovery that potent nonnucleoside RT inhibitors (NNRTIs) enhance RT subunit interaction and can unexpectedly affect the late stages of HIV replication.
- 2019: Associate Editor, Viruses
- 2018: Adjunct Professor, Monash University
- 2017: President Australasian Virology Society
- 2017: Executive Member, Australian Centre for HIV and Hepatitis Virology Research
- 2017: Member, National Examinations and Qualifications Board, Australian Society for Microbiology
- 2017: Honorary Professor, Melbourne University
- 2015: Vice President, Australasian Virology Society
- 2014: Editorial Board, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
- 2013: Principal for Sexual and Reproductive Health, Burnet Institute
- 2012 – 2017: Member Judging Panel, Premiers Award for Health and Medical Research
- 2011: ASMR representative on the Premiers Award for Health and Medical Research judging panel.
- 2011: Academic Editor, PLoS ONE
- 2009: Principal Burnet Fellow, Burnet Institute
- 2009: Editorial Board, AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
- 2008: Adjunct Associate Professor, Department of Microbiology, Monash University
- 2007: Editorial Board, The Open Microbiology Journal
- 2005: Editorial Board, Current HIV Research
- 2005: Honorary Senior Lecturer, Department of Microbiology, Monash University
- 2005-2007: Director, ASMR National Committee
- 2005-2010: ASMR Liaison to the Premiers Award for Health and Medical Research
- 2004-2005: Victorian State Convenor, ASMR Medical Research Week
- 2004: Member, National Centre for HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research Antiretroviral Working Group.
- 2002: Committee Member ASMR MRW, Victorian Branch
- 2017: Head of Life Sciences, Burnet Institute
- 2017: co-Head, Eliminate HIV
- 2017: NHMRC Senior Research Fellow
- 2011: Head, Retroviral Biology and Antivirals Laboratory, Burnet Institute
- 2009: NHMRC Senior Research Fellow
- 2003-2010: Head, Molecular Interactions Group, Burnet Institute
- 1997-2001: CJ Martin Postdoctoral Fellow (Laboratory of Professor Stephen P Goff) Columbia University, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, New York, USA.
- 1997: PhD in Microbiology, Monash University, Victoria, Australia
- 1984: BSc (Hons), Monash University, Australia
- 2012: Fenner Award, Burnet Institute
- 2012: Fenner Award, Australian Society for Microbiology
- 2011: Fellow of the Australian Society for Microbiology (FASM)
- 2009: NHMRC Senior Research Fellowship
- 2008: Nick Crofts Publication Award for top rated publication from the Burnet Institute in 2007
- 2004: CASS Foundation Travel Grant
- 2003: NHMRC RD Wright Career Development Award
- 1997: NHMRC CJ Martin Postdoctoral Fellowship
- 1995: First Prize, Best Oral Presentation, 7th Annual Conference ASHM, Coolum, Australia
- A 30 kDa polyethylene glycol-enfuvirtide complex enhances the exposure of enfuvirtide in lymphatic viral reservoirs in rats.
Kaminskas LM, Williams CC, Leong NJ, Chan LJ, Butcher NJ, Feeney OM, Porter CJH, Tyssen D, Tachedjian G, Ascher DB
Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2019 Mar; 137:218-226
- Combined oral contraceptive pill-exposure alone does not reduce the risk of bacterial vaginosis recurrence in a pilot randomised controlled trial.
Vodstrcil LA, Plummer ME, Fairley CK, Tachedjian G, Law MG, Hocking JS, Worthington MK, Grant MM, Okoko N, Bradshaw CS
Sci Rep. 2019 Mar; 9(1):3555
- The evolving facets of bacterial vaginosis: implications for HIV transmission.
McKinnon LR, Achilles S, Bradshaw CS, Burgener A, Crucitti T, Fredricks DN, Jaspan HB, Kaul R, Kaushic C, Klatt N, Kwon DS, Marrazzo JM, Masson L, McClelland S, Ravel J, van de Wijgert JHHM, Vodstrcil LA, Tachedjian G
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2019 Jan; 35(3):219-228
- Host and Viral Proteins Modulating Ebola and Marburg Virus Egress.
Gordon TB, Hayward JA, Marsh GA, Baker ML, Tachedjian G
Viruses. 2019 Jan; 11(1)
- Molecular Dissection of an Inhibitor Targeting the HIV Integrase Dependent Pre-Integration Complex Nuclear Import.
Wagstaff KM, Headey S, Telwatte S, Tyssen D, Hearps AC, Thomas DR, Tachedjian G, Jans DA
Cell Microbiol. 2019 Jan; 21(1):e12953
- Anti-HIV-1 Activity of Lactic Acid in Human Cervicovaginal Fluid.
Tyssen D, Wang YY, Hayward JA, Agius PA, DeLong K, Aldunate M, Ravel J, Moench TR, Cone RA, Tachedjian G
mSphere. 2018 Jul; 3(4):e00055-18
- Differential evolution of antiretroviral restriction factors in pteropid bats as revealed by APOBEC3 gene complexity.
Hayward JA, Tachedjian M, Cui J, Cheng AZ, Johnson A, Baker M, Harris RS, Wang LF, Tachedjian G
Mol Biol Evol. 2018 Mar; 35(7):1626–1637
- The implausible "in vivo" role of hydrogen peroxide as an antimicrobial factor produced by vaginal microbiota.
Tachedjian G, O'Hanlon DE, Ravel J
Microbiome. 2018 Feb; 6(1):29
- The role of lactic acid production by probiotic Lactobacillus species in vaginal health.
Tachedjian G, Aldunate M, Bradshaw CS, Cone RA
Res Microbiol. 2017 Apr; 168(9-10):782-792
- Vaginal lactic acid elicits an anti-inflammatory
response from human cervicovaginal epithelial
cells and inhibits production of pro-inflammatory
mediators associated with HIV acquisition.
Hearps AC, Tyssen D, Srbinovski D, Bayigga L, Diaz DJD, Aldunate M, Cone RA, Gugasyan R, Anderson DJ, Tachedjian G
Mucosal Immunol. 2017 Apr; 10(6):1480-1490
- Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors reduce HIV-1 virus production from latently infected resting CD4+ T cells following latency reversal.
Zerbato JM, Tachedjian G, Sluis-Cremer N
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2017 Feb; 61(3):e01736-16
- Increasing Prevalence of Synonymous Mutations K65K and K66K in HIV-1 subtype B reverse transcriptase.
Telwatte S, Brumme CJ, Hearps AC, Latham CF, Hayward JA, Sonza S, Sluis-Cremer N, Harrigan PR, Tachedjian G
AIDS. 2016 Sep; 30(18):2787-2793
- Why Do We Need New Drug Classes for HIV Treatment and Prevention?
Waheed AA, Tachedjian G
Curr Top Med Chem. 2016 May; 16(12):1343-1349
- Editorial: Current and Emerging Drug Targets for Human Immunodeficiency Virus.
Waheed AA, Tachedjian G
Curr Top Med Chem. 2016 Apr; 16(10):1072-1073
- Fragment Based Strategies for Discovery of Novel HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase and Integrase Inhibitors.
Latham CF, La J, Tinetti RN, Chalmers DK, Tachedjian G
Curr Top Med Chem. 2016 Mar; 16(10):1135-1153
- Contraction of the type I IFN locus and unusual constitutive expression of IFN-alpha in bats.
Zhou P, Tachedjian M, Wynne JW, Boyd V, Cui J, Smith I, Cowled C, Ng JH, Mok L, Michalski WP, Mendenhall IH, Tachedjian G, Wang LF, Baker ML
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 Feb; 113(10):2696-2701
- High fidelity simian immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase mutants have impaired replication in vitro and in vivo.
Lloyd SB, Lichtfuss M, Amarasena TH, Alcantara S, De Rose R, Tachedjian G, Alinejad-Rokny H, Venturi V, Davenport MP, Winnall WR, Kent SJ
Virology. 2016 Feb; 492:1-10
- Mechanisms of HIV transmission in Depo-Provera users: The likely role of
Hickey M, Marino JL, Tachedjian G
JAIDS. 2016 Jan; 71(1):1-7
- Bats and Rodents Shape Mammalian Retroviral Phylogeny.
Cui J, Gilda Tachedjian G, Wang L-F
Sci Rep. 2015 Nov; 5:16561
- Bats and Reverse Transcribing RNA and DNA Viruses (Book Chapter)
Tachedjian G, Hayward JA, Cui J
in Bats and Viruses: A New Frontier of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Editors LF Wang and C Cowled, Published by Wiley. 2015 Jul; Chapter 7 :177-202
- Antimicrobial and immune modulatory effects of lactic acid and short chain fatty acids produced by vaginal microbiota associated with eubiosis and bacterial vaginosis.
Aldunate M, Srbinovski D, Hearps AC, Latham CF, Ramsland PA, Gugasyan R, Cone RA, Tachedjian G
Front Physiol. 2015 Jun; 6:164
- Identification of mechanistically distinct inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase through fragment screening.
La J, Latham CF, Tinetti RN, Johnson A, Tyssen D, Huber KD, Sluis-Cremer N, Simpson JS, Headey SJ, Chalmers DK, Tachedjian G
PNAS. 2015 May; 112(22):6979-6984
- Silent mutations at codons 65 and 66 in reverse transcriptase alleviate indel formation and restore fitness in subtype B HIV-1 containing D67N and K70R drug resistance mutations.
Telwatte S, Hearps AC, Johnson A, Latham CF, Moore K, Agius P, Tachedjian M, Sonza S, Sluis-Cremer N, Harrigan PR, Tachedjian G
Nucleic Acids Res. 2015 Mar; Epub ahead of print
- HIV-1 Infection of T Cells and Macrophages Are Differentially Modulated by Virion-Associated Hck: A Nef-Dependent Phenomenon.
Cornall A, Mak J, Greenway A, Tachedjian G
Viruses. 2013 Sep; 5(9):2235-2252
- Sensitive assessment of the virologic outcomes of stopping and restarting non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy.
Geretti AM, Fox Z, Johnson JA, Booth C, Lipscomb J, Stuyver LJ, Tachedjian G, Baxter J, Touloumi G, Lehmann C, Owen A, Phillips A; INSIGHT Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy (SMART) Study Group.
PLoS One. 2013 Jul; 8(7):e69266
- The seventh (and last?) International Microbicides Conference: from discovery to delivery.
McGregor S, Tachedjian G, Haire BG, Kaldor JM
Sex Health. 2013 May; 10(3):240-245
- Vaginal concentrations of lactic acid potently inactivate HIV.
Aldunate M, Tyssen D, Johnson A, Zakir T, Sonza S, Moench T, Cone R, Tachedjian G
J Antimicrob Chemother. 2013 May; 68(9):2015-25
- The NRTIs Lamivudine, Stavudine and Zidovudine Have Reduced HIV-1 Inhibitory Activity in Astrocytes.
Gray LR, Tachedjian G, Ellett AM, Roche MJ, Cheng WJ, Guillemin GJ, Brew BJ, Turville SG, Wesselingh SL, Gorry PR, Churchill MJ
PLoS One. 2013 Apr; 8(4):e62196
- Identification of diverse full-length endogenous betaretroviruses in megabats and microbats.
Hayward JA, Tachedjian M, Cui J, Field H, Holmes EC, Wang LF, Tachedjian G
Retrovirology. 2013 Mar; 10(1):35
- No association between XMRV or related gammaretroviruses in Australian prostate cancer patients.
Rezaei SD, Hearps AC, Mills J, Pedersen J, Tachedjian G
Virol J. 2013 Jan; 10(1):20
- Host-pathogen interactions of retroviruses.
Waheed AA, Brass AL, Gummuluru S, Tachedjian G
Mol Biol Int. 2012 Oct; 2012:648512
- Biology of Mucosally Transmitted Sexual Infection - Translating the Basic Science Into Novel HIV intervention: A Workshop Summary.
Purcell D, Cunningham A, Turville S, Tachedjian G, Landay A
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2012 Sep; ;28(11):1389-1396
- Phosphatidylethanolamine-binding is a conserved feature of cyclotide-membrane interactions.
Henriques ST, Huang YH, Castanho MA, Bagatolli LA, Sonza S, Tachedjian G, Daly NL, Craik DJ
J Biol Chem. 2012 Aug; 287(40):33629-33643
- N348I in HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Counteracts the Synergy Between Zidovudine and Nevirapine.
Yap SH, Herman BD, Radzio J, Sluis-Cremer N, Tachedjian G
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2012 Jun; 61(12):153-157
- Identification of diverse groups of endogenous gammaretroviruses in mega and microbats.
Cui J, Tachedjian G, Tachedjian M, Holmes EC, Zhang S, Wang LF
J Gen Virol. 2012 Jun; 93(Pt 9):2037-2045
- Discovery of retroviral homologs in bats: implications for the origin of mammalian gammaretroviruses.
Cui J, Tachedjian M, Wang L, Tachedjian G, Wang LF, Zhang S
J Virol. 2012 Apr; 86(8):4288-4293
- Identification of residues involved in NS2 homodimerization and elucidation of their impact on the HCV life cycle.
Gorzin AA, Ramsland PA, Tachedjian G, Gowans EJ
J Viral Hepat. 2012 Mar; 19(3):189-198
- SPL7013 Gel (VivaGel®) retains potent HIV-1 and HSV-2 inhibitory activity following vaginal administration in humans.
Price CF, Tyssen D, Sonza S, Davie A, Evans S, Lewis GR, Xia S, Spelman T, Hodsman P, Moench TR, Humberstone A, Paull JR, Tachedjian G
PLoS One. 2011 Sep; 6(9):e24095
- Decoding the membrane activity of the cyclotide kalata B1: the importance of phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipids and lipid organization on hemolytic and anti-HIV activities.
Henriques ST, Huang YH, Rosengren KJ, Franquelim HG, Carvalho FA, Johnson A, Sonza S, Tachedjian G, Castanho MA, Daly NL, Craik DJ
J Biol Chem. 2011 Jul; 286(27):24231-24241
- Virucidal activity of the dendrimer microbicide SPL7013 against HIV-1.
Telwatte S, Moore K, Johnson A, Tyssen D, Sterjovski J, Aldunate M, Gorry PR, Ramsland PA, Lewis GR, Paull JR, Sonza S, Tachedjian G
Antiviral Res. 2011 Jun; 90(3):195-199
- Structure activity relationship of dendrimer microbicides with dual action antiviral activity.
Tyssen D, Henderson SA, Johnson A, Sterjovski J, Moore K, La J, Zanin M, Sonza S, Karellas P, Giannis MP, Krippner G, Wesselingh S, McCarthy T, Gorry PR, Ramsland PA, Cone R, Paull JR, Lewis GR, Tachedjian G
PLoS One. 2010 Aug; 5(8):e12309
- Ubisol-Aqua: coenzyme Q10 prevents antiretroviral toxic neuropathy in an in vitro model.
Cherry CL, Mobarok M, Wesselingh SL, Fain R, Weinstock S, Tachedjian G, Srivastava S, Tyssen DP, Glass JD, Hooker DJ
Curr HIV Res. 2010 Apr; 8(3):232-239
- N348I in reverse transcriptase provides a genetic pathway for HIV-1 to select thymidine analogue mutations and mutations antagonistic to thymidine analogue mutations.
Radzio J, Yap SH, Tachedjian G, Sluis-Cremer N
AIDS. 2010 Mar; 24(5):659-667
- N348I in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase decreases susceptibility to tenofovir and etravirine in combination with other resistance mutations.
Sluis-Cremer N, Moore K, Radzio J, Sonza S, Tachedjian G
AIDS. 2010 Jan; 24(2):317-319
- Effect of reverse transcriptase inhibitors and mutations on the low-cost Cavidi reverse transcriptase viral load assay.
van Rooijen LB, Greengrass V, Morris LM, Plate MM, Gouillou M, Tachedjian G, Sluis-Cremer N, Hearps AC, Crowe SM
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009 Dec; 52(4):527-529
- Maturation of the HIV reverse transcription complex: putting the jigsaw together.
Warrilow D, Tachedjian G, Harrich D
Rev Med Virol. 2009 Nov; 19(6):324-337
- Enhancement of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication is not intrinsic to all polyanion-based microbicides.
Sonza S, Johnson A, Tyssen D, Spelman T, Lewis GR, Paull JR, Tachedjian G
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009 Aug; 53(8):3565-3568
- The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance mutation I132M confers hypersensitivity to nucleoside analogs.
Ambrose Z, Herman BD, Sheen CW, Zelina S, Moore KL, Tachedjian G, Nissley DV, Sluis-Cremer N
J Virol. 2009 Apr; 83(8):3826-3833
- 4th International AIDS Society Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention.
Maher L, Tachedjian G, Hoy JF, Millwood I, Guy RJ, Walsh NM, Zaunders JJ, Jaworowski A, Kaldor JM
Med J Aust. 2007 Dec; 187(11-12):610-612
- N348I in the connection domain of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase confers zidovudine and nevirapine resistance.
Yap SH, Sheen CW, Fahey J, Zanin M, Tyssen D, Lima VD, Wynhoven B, Kuiper M, Sluis-Cremer N, Harrigan PR, Tachedjian G
PLoS Med. 2007 Dec; 4(12):e335
- Targeting human immunodeficiency virus type 1 assembly, maturation and budding.
Wapling J, Srivastava S, Shehu-Xhilaga M, Tachedjian G
Drug Target Insights. 2007 Jul; 2:159-182
- Characterization of novel non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor resistance mutations at residues 132 and 135 in the 51 kDa subunit of HIV-1 RT.
Nissley DV, Radzio J, Ambrose Z, Sheen CW, Hamamouch N, Moore KL, Tachedjian G, Sluis-Cremer N
Biochem J. 2007 May; 404(1):151-157
- Alteration of the proline at position 7 of the HIV-1 spacer peptide p1 suppresses viral infectivity in a strain dependent manner.
Hill MK, Bellamy-McIntyre A, Vella LJ, Campbell SM, Marshall JA, Tachedjian G, Mak J
Curr HIV Res. 2007 Jan; 5(1):69-78
- Mutations that abrogate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase dimerization affect maturation of the reverse transcriptase heterodimer.
Wapling J, Moore KL, Sonza S, Mak J, Tachedjian G
J Virol. 2005 Aug; 79(16):10247-10257
- Relationship between enzyme activity and dimeric structure of recombinant HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.
Tachedjian G, Radzio J, Sluis-Cremer N
Proteins. 2005 Jul; 60(1):5-13
- Analysis of the contribution of reverse transcriptase and integrase proteins to retroviral RNA dimer conformation.
Buxton P, Tachedjian G, Mak J
J Virol. 2005 May; 79(10):6338-6348
- Evaluation of a low cost reverse transcriptase assay for plasma HIV-1 viral load monitoring.
Greengrass VL, Turnbulll SP, Hocking J, Dunne AL, Tachedjian G, Corrigan GE, Crowe SM
Curr HIV Res. 2005 Apr; 3(2):183-190
- Efavirenz enhances the proteolytic processing of an HIV-1 pol polyprotein precursor and reverse transcriptase homodimer formation.
Tachedjian G, Moore KL, Goff SP, Sluis-Cremer N
FEBS Lett. 2005 Jan; 579(2):379-384
- The packaging and maturation of the HIV-1 Pol proteins.
Hill M, Tachedjian G, Mak J
Curr HIV Res. 2005 Jan; 3(1):73-85
- Antiretroviral compounds: mechanisms underlying failure of HAART to eradicate HIV-1.
Shehu-Xhilaga M, Tachedjian G, Crowe SM, Kedzierska K
Curr Med Chem. 2005 Jan; 12(15):1705-1719
- An in vivo mutation from leucine to tryptophan at position 210 in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase contributes to high-level resistance to 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine.
Hooker DJ, Tachedjian G, Solomon AE, Gurusinghe AD, Land S, Birch C, Anderson JL, Roy BM, Arnold E, Deacon NJ
J Virol. 1996 Nov; 70(11):8010-8018
- Zidovudine resistance is suppressed by mutations conferring resistance of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 to foscarnet.
Tachedjian G, Mellors J, Bazmi H, Birch C, Mills J
J Virol. 1996 Oct; 70(10):7171-7181
- Characterisation of foscarnet-resistant strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.
Tachedjian G, Hooker DJ, Gurusinghe AD, Bazmi H, Deacon NJ, Mellors J, Birch C, Mills J
Virology. 1995 Sep; 212(1):58-68
- Reverse transcriptase mutations in sequential HIV-1 isolates in a patient with AIDS.
Gurusinghe AD, Land SA, Birch C, McGavin C, Hooker DJ, Tachedjian G, Doherty R, Deacon NJ
J Med Virol. 1995 Jul; 46(3):238-243
- Altered sensitivity to antiviral drugs of herpes simplex virus isolates from a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
Birch CJ, Tachedjian G, Doherty RR, Hayes K, Gust ID
J Infect Dis. 1990 Sep; 162(3):731-734
- Investigation of topoisomerase inhibitors for activity
against human immunodeficiency virus: inhibition by
Tachedjian G, Tyssen D, Locarnini S, Gust I, Birch C
Antivir Chem Chemother. 1990 Jul; 12:131-138
- Antiviral strategies in chronic hepatitis B virus infection: II. Inhibition of duck hepatitis B virus in vitro using conventional antiviral agents and supercoiled-DNA active compounds.
Civitico G, Wang YY, Luscombe C, Bishop N, Tachedjian G, Gust I, Locarnini S
J Med Virol. 1990 Jun; 31(2):90-97
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