Dr Lachlan Gray is Deputy Head of the HIV Neuropathogeneis Laboratory at the Burnet Institute. He trained as a molecular virologist and has research interests in HIV entry, replication, and latency. More specifically his current research addresses the following areas:
- How HIV enters cells of the immune system with a focus on HIV entry into brain cells
- How HIV replicates within brain cells
- The role of HIV brain infection in the establishment of viral reservoirs and implications for HIV cure research
- Evaluating the use of HIV cure drugs in the context of brain infection
- Effects of antiviral drugs that target virus entry in the brain
- How HIV infection of the brain leads to HIV dementia
Lachlan Gray completed his Bachelor of Science degree at the University of Melbourne, Australia, majoring in Virology, Immunology and Genetics in 2002. In 2003 he undertook his Honours, studying at the Burnet Institute, Melbourne, Australia, under the supervision of Prof. Paul Gorry, analyzing viral evolution in the Sydney Blood Bank Cohort of HIV-1 long-term non-progressors. Lachlan worked as a Research Assistant (RA) in the Gorry lab in 2004 contributing to various projects. Following his RA year, he commenced his PhD in 2005 under the supervision of Prof. Paul Gorry and A/Prof. Melissa Churchill, also based at the Burnet Institute. The title of his thesis was “Viral determinants of HIV-1 neurotropism and neurovirulence”. Following completion of his PhD in 2009 he commenced a Postdoctoral position at Monash University, Melbourne, Australia in 2010 under the supervision of Prof. Steve Wesselingh. He’s since returned to the Burnet in his current role as Senior Research Officer, working within the Churchill Lab. His postdoctoral studies mainly concentrate on HIV infection of the CNS and its importance to the establishment of a viral reservoir in the CNS and the development of HIV-associated dementia.
Lachlan has authored more than 40 peer-reviewed journal articles (14 as first/senior author) and presented at more than 43 prominent national and international conferences.
He received the prestigious Dora Lush Biomedical Postgraduate Scholarship (NHMRC) to support him during his PhD and was also awarded a highly competitive Australian-based Postdoctoral Training Fellowship (NHMRC) in 2010 to support his Postdoctoral studies. During his short scientific career he has been awarded multiple prizes and awards (n=30), totalling more than $55,000. He is an active member of the scientific community and previously held the position of President and Chair of the AMREP Early-Mid Career Research Committee at AMREP. He also served as Editor for the ECRTimes Newsletter for the two years and helped convene several scientific workshops and conferences.
- 2015-2016: Australian Centre for HIV & Hepatitis Research EOI, “Clinically validating the first suite of genotypic prognostic tropism tests for non-B HIV-1 subtypes”. Role: CIA. A$171,250
- 2011-2013: Australian Centre for HIV & Hepatitis Research EOI, “Quantitative, Real-time HIV Neutralisation Assay”. Role: CIB. A$192,500
- 2010-2013: NHMRC Australian Biomedical Postdoctoral Fellowship. Role: CIA. A$305,000
- 2006-2008: NHMRC Dora Lush Biomedical Postgraduate Scholarship. Role: CIA. A$53,000
- 2005-2006: Melbourne Research Scholarship (MRS), The University Of Melbourne. Role: CIA. A$18,000
- 2015-present: Deputy Head, HIV Neuropathogenesis Lab, Burnet Institute, Australia
- 2014-2015: Senior Postdoctoral Fellow, Churchill Lab, Burnet Institute, Australia
- 2014-present: Adjunct Research Fellow, Department of Infectious Disease, Monash University, Australia
- 2010-2013: NHMRC Postdoctoral Fellow, HIV Neuropathogenesis Laboratory, Monash University, Victoria, Australia
- 2010-2013: Honorary Postdoctoral Fellow, Burnet Institute, Australia
- 2009: Postdoctoral Fellow, HIV Neuropathogenesis Laboratory, Burnet Institute, Australia
- 2005-2008: Part-time Research Assistant, HIV Molecular Pathogenesis Laboratory, Burnet Institute, Australia
- 2004: Research Assistant, HIV Molecular Pathogenesis Laboratory, Burnet Institute, Australia
- 2009: Doctor of Philosophy, University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
- 2003: BSc (Hons), University of Melbourne, Australia
- 2002: BSc, University of Melbourne, Australia
- 2014: IAS “Towards an HIV Cure” Symposium Scholarship 2014
- 2014: Australian Academy of Science sponsored delegate, 6th HOPE Meeting with Nobel Laureates
- 2013: Burnet Prize for Infectious Diseases Research, Alfred Week Research Poster Display
- 2013: CASS Foundation Travel Grant 2013
- 2013: International AIDS Society Scholarship 2013
- 2013: IAS “Towards an HIV Cure” Symposium Scholarship 2013
- 2013: IAS/ANRS Young Investigator Award - Special HIV Cure Prize
- 2012: AIDS 2012 International Scholarship
- 2012: IAS “Towards an HIV Cure” Symposium Scholarship
- 2012: IAS “Towards an HIV Cure” Rapporteur Support.
- 2012: Monash, School Of Biomedical Sciences Travel Grant
- 2012: ASHM 2012 Conference Scholarship
- 2012: Burnet Prize for Infectious Diseases (1st Prize), Alfred Week Research Poster Display
- 2012: Geoffrey Connard Travel Fellowship 2012
- 2012: Ian Potter Foundation Travel Grant 2012
- 2011: International AIDS Society Scholarship, IAS.
- 2011: Monash, School Of Biomedical Sciences Travel Grant
- 2011: Fresh Science Finalist
- 2010: Burnet Institute Travel Award, Harold Mitchell Foundation Postdoctoral Travel Fellowship
- 2010-2013: NHMRC Australian Biomedical Postdoctoral Fellowship.
- 2010: Investigator in Training Trainee Travel Grant, ISNV.
- 2010: Gilead Early Career Investigator award for best ECR presentation, ACH2.
- 2009: Young Investigator Award, CROI.
- 2008: Burnet Prize for Infectious Diseases (2nd Prize), Alfred Week Research Poster Display.
- 2008: Student Research Medal (Bronze), ACH2.
- 2008: Young Investigator Award, CROI.
- 2007: International AIDS Society Scholarship, IAS.
- 2006-2008: NHMRC Dora Lush Biomedical Postgraduate Scholarship.
- 2006: Keystone Symposia Scholarship, HIV Keystone Symposium.
- 2005-2006: Melbourne Research Scholarship (MRS), University of Melbourne.
- 2005: Roche Award, Burnet Institute.
- 2005: Award for most outstanding student presentation, ACH2.
- 2003: Undergraduate and Junior Researcher Support Awards in HIV and Hepatitis, ASHM.
- HIV integration and the establishment of latency in CCL19-treated resting CD4(+) T cells require activation of NF-kappaB.
Saleh S, Lu HK, Evans V, Harisson D, Zhou J, Jaworowski A, Sallmann G, Cheong KY, Mota TM, Tennakoon S, Angelovich TA, Anderson J, Harman A, Cunningham A, Gray L, Churchill M, Mak J, Drummer H, Vatakis DN, Lewin SR, Cameron PU
Retrovirology. 2016 Jul; 13(1):49
- A HIV-Tat/C4-binding protein chimera encoded by a DNA vaccine is highly immunogenic and contains acute EcoHIV infection in mice.
Tomusange K, Wijesundara D, Gummow J, Garrod T, Li Y, Gray L, Churchill M, Grubor-Bauk B, Gowans EJ
Sci Rep. 2016 Jun; 6:29131
- Strategies to target HIV-1 in the central nervous system.
Gray LR, Brew BJ, Churchill MJ
Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2016 Mar; 11(4):371-375
- CNS-specific regulatory elements in brain-derived HIV-1 strains affect responses to latency-reversing agents with implications for cure strategies.
Gray LR, Cowley D, Welsh C, Lu HK, Brew BJ, Lewin SR, Wesselingh SL, Gorry PR, Churchill MJ
Mol Psychiatry. 2016 Feb; 21(4):574-584
- Toxicity and in vitro activity of HIV-1 latency-reversing agents in primary CNS cells.
Gray LR, On H, Roberts E, Lu HK, Moso MA, Raison JA, Papaioannou C, Cheng WJ, Ellett AM, Jacobson JC, Purcell DF, Wesselingh SL, Gorry PR, Lewin SR, Churchill MJ
J Neurovirol. 2016 Jan; 22(4):455-463
- Inhibition of catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) by tolcapone restores reductions in microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and synaptophysin (SYP) following exposure of neuronal cells to neurotropic HIV.
Lee TT, Chana G, Gorry PR, Ellett A, Bousman CA, Churchill MJ, Gray LR, Everall IP
J Neurovirol. 2015 Jun; 21(5):535-543
- Reliable Genotypic Tropism Tests for the Major HIV-1 Subtypes.
Cashin K, Gray LR, Harvey KL, Perez-Bercoff D, Lee GQ, Sterjovski J, Roche M, Demarest JF, Drummond F, Harrigan PR, Churchill MJ, Gorry PR
Sci Rep. 2015 Feb; 5:8543
- HIV-1 transcriptional regulation in the central nervous system and implications for HIV cure research.
Churchill MJ, Cowley DJ, Wesselingh SL, Gorry PR, Gray LR
J Neurovirol. 2015 Feb; 21(3):290-300
- Ex Vivo response to Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors of the HIV Long Terminal Repeat (LTR) derived from HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy.
Lu HK, Gray LR, Wightman F, Ellenberg P, Khoury G, Cheng WJ, Mota TM, Wesselingh S, Gorry PR, Cameron PU, Churchill MJ, Lewin SR
PLoS One. 2014 Nov; 9(11):e113341
- Is the central nervous system a reservoir of HIV-1?
Gray LR, Roche M, Flynn JK, Wesselingh SL, Gorry PR, Churchill MJ
Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2014 Sep; 9(6):552-558
- HIV-1 Entry and Trans-Infection of Astrocytes Involves CD81 Vesicles.
Gray LR, Turville SG, Hitchen TL, Cheng WJ, Ellett AM, Salimi H, Roche MJ, Wesselingh SL, Gorry PR, Churchill MJ
PLoS One. 2014 Feb; 9(2):e90620
- Entinostat is a histone deacetylase inhibitor selective for class 1 histone deacetylases and activates HIV production from latently infected primary T cells.
Wightman F, Lu HK, Solomon AE, Saleh S, Harman AN, Cunningham AL, Gray L, Churchill M, Cameron PU, Dear AE, Lewin SR
AIDS. 2013 Nov; 27(18):2853-2862
- Advances in measuring apoptosis: a robust, highly sensitive and specific qPCR-based protocol for absolute quantification of apoptotic DNA.
Hooker DL, Mobarok M, Anderson J, Gray L, Gorry PR, Cherry CL
Protocol Exchange (Nature Group. 2013 Sep; doi 10.1038/protex.2013.07
- Longitudinal analysis of CCR5 and CXCR4 usage in a cohort of antiretroviral therapy-naive subjects with progressive HIV-1 subtype C infection.
Jakobsen MR (equal contributor), Cashin K (equal contributor), Roche M, Sterjovski J, Ellett A, Borm K, Flynn J, Erikstrup C, Gouillou M, Gray LR, Saksena NK, Wang B, Purcell DF, Kallestrup P, Zinyama-Gutsire R, Gomo E, Ullum H, Østergaard L, Lee B, Ramsland PA, Churchill MJ, Gorry PR
PLoS One. 2013 Jun; 8(6):e65950
- A common mechanism of clinical HIV-1 resistance to the CCR5 antagonist maraviroc despite divergent resistance levels and lack of common gp120 resistance mutations.
Roche M, Salimi H, Duncan R, Wilkinson BL, Chikere K, Moore MS, Webb NE, Zappi H, Sterjovski J, Flynn JK, Ellett A, Gray LR, Lee B, Jubb B, Westby M, Ramsland PA, Lewin SR, Payne RJ, Churchill MJ, Gorry PR
Retrovirology. 2013 Apr; 10(1):43
- The NRTIs Lamivudine, Stavudine and Zidovudine Have Reduced HIV-1 Inhibitory Activity in Astrocytes.
Gray LR, Tachedjian G, Ellett AM, Roche MJ, Cheng WJ, Guillemin GJ, Brew BJ, Turville SG, Wesselingh SL, Gorry PR, Churchill MJ
PLoS One. 2013 Apr; 8(4):e62196
- The magnitude of HIV-1 resistance to the CCR5 antagonist maraviroc may impart a differential alteration in HIV-1 tropism for macrophages and T-cell subsets.
Flynn JK, Paukovics G, Moore MS, Ellett A, Gray LR, Duncan R, Salimi H, Jubb B, Westby M, Purcell DF, Lewin SR, Lee B, Churchill MJ, Gorry PR, Roche M
Virology. 2013 Apr; 442(1):51-58
- CoRSeqV3-C: a novel HIV-1 subtype C specific V3 sequence based coreceptor usage prediction algorithm.
Cashin K, Gray LR, Jakobsen MR, Sterjovski J, Churchill MJ, Gorry PR
Retrovirology. 2013 Feb; 10(1):24
- Is specific HIV eradication from the brain possible or needed?
Brew BJ, Gray L, Lewin S, Churchill M
Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2013 Jan; 13(3):403-409
- Macrophage-tropic HIV-1 variants from brain demonstrate alterations in the way gp120 engages both CD4 and CCR5.
Salimi H, Roche M, Webb N, Gray LR, Chikere K, Sterjovski J, Ellett A, Wesselingh SL, Ramsland PA, Lee B, Churchill MJ, Gorry PR
J Leukoc Biol. 2013 Jan; 93(1):113-126
- Reduced basal transcriptional activity of central nervous system-derived HIV-1 long terminal repeats.
Gray L, Cowley D, Crespan E, Welsh C, Mackenzie C, Wesselingh S, Gorry P, Churchill MJ
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2013 Jan; 29(2):365-370
- Alternative Coreceptor Requirements for Efficient CCR5- and CXCR4-Mediated HIV-1 Entry into Macrophages.
Cashin K, Roche M, Sterjovski J, Ellett A, Gray LR, Cunningham AL, Ramsland PA, Churchill MJ, Gorry PR
J Virol. 2011 Oct; 85(20):10699-10709
- HIV infection of dendritic cells subverts the IFN induction pathway via IRF-1 and inhibits type 1 IFN production.
Harman AN, Lai J, Turville S, Samarajiwa S, Gray L, Marsden V, Mercier S, Jones K, Nasr N, Cumming H, Donaghy H, Mak J, Churchill M, Hertzog P, Cunningham AL
Blood. 2011 Jul; 118(2):298-308
- Conformational alterations in the CD4 binding cavity of HIV-1 gp120 influencing gp120-CD4 interactions and fusogenicity of HIV-1 envelopes derived from brain and other tissues.
Gray L, Sterjovski J, Ramsland PA, Churchill MJ, Gorry PR
Retrovirology. 2011 Jun; 8:42
- Genetic and functional heterogeneity of CNS-derived tat alleles from patients with HIV-associated dementia.
Cowley D, Gray LR, Wesselingh SL, Gorry PR, Churchill MJ
J Neurovirol. 2011 Feb; 17(1):70-81
- CD4 and MHC class 1 down-modulation activities of nef alleles from brain- and lymphoid tissue-derived primary HIV-1 isolates.
Gray LR, Gabuzda D, Cowley D, Ellett A, Chiavaroli L, Wesselingh SL, Churchill MJ, Gorry PR
J Neurovirol. 2011 Feb; 17(1):82-91
- Both CD31(+) and CD31 naive CD4(+) T cells are persistent HIV type 1-infected reservoirs in individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy.
Wightman F, Solomon A, Khoury G, Green JA, Gray L, Gorry PR, Ho YS, Saksena NK, Hoy J, Crowe SM, Cameron PU, Lewin SR
J Infect Dis. 2010 Dec; 202(11):1738-1748
- Extremely prolonged HIV seroconversion associated with an MHC haplotype carrying disease susceptibility genes for antibody deficiency disorders.
Padiglione A, Aleksic E, French M, Arnott A, Wilson KM, Tippett E, Kaye M, Gray L, Ellett A, Crane M, Leslie DE, Lewin SR, Breschkin A, Birch C, Gorry PR, McPhee DA, Crowe SM
Clin Immunol. 2010 Nov; 137(2):199-208
- An altered and more efficient mechanism of CCR5 engagement contributes to macrophage tropism of CCR5-using HIV-1 envelopes.
Sterjovski J, Roche M, Churchill MJ, Ellett A, Farrugia W, Gray LR, Cowley D, Poumbourios P, Lee B, Wesselingh SL, Cunningham AL, Ramsland PA, Gorry PR
Virology. 2010 Sep; 404(2):269-278
- Constrained use of CCR5 on CD4+ lymphocytes by R5X4 HIV-1: efficiency of Env-CCR5 interactions and low CCR5 expression determine a range of restricted CCR5-mediated entry.
Loftin LM, Kienzle MF, Yi Y, Lee B, Lee FH, Gray L, Gorry PR, Collman RG
Virology. 2010 Jun; 402(1):135-148
- Enhanced CD4+ cellular apoptosis by CCR5-restricted HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein variants from patients with progressive HIV-1 infection.
Wade J, Sterjovski J, Gray L, Roche M, Chiavaroli L, Ellett A, Jakobsen MR, Cowley D, da Fonseca Pereira C, Saksena N, Wang B, Purcell DF, Karlsson I, Fenyo EM, Churchill M, Gorry PR
Virology. 2010 Jan; 396(2):246-255
- Tissue-specific sequence alterations in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope favoring CCR5 usage contribute to persistence of dual-tropic virus in the brain.
Gray L, Roche M, Churchill MJ, Sterjovski J, Ellett A, Poumbourios P, Sheffief S, Wang B, Saksena N, Purcell DF, Wesselingh S, Cunningham AL, Brew BJ, Gabuzda D, Gorry PR
J Virol. 2009 Jun; 83(11):5430-5441
- Primary HIV-1 R5 isolates from end-stage disease display enhanced viral fitness in parallel with increased gp120 net charge.
Repits J, Sterjovski J, Badia-Martinez D, Mild M, Gray L, Churchill MJ, Purcell DFJ, Karlsson A, Albert J, Fenyo EM, Achour A, Gorry PR, Jansson M
Virology. 2008 Sep; 379(1):125-134
- Asn 362 in gp120 contributes to enhanced fusogenicity by CCR5-restricted HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein variants from patients with AIDS.
Sterjovski J, Churchill MJ, Ellett A, Gray LR, Roche MJ, Dunfee RL, Purcell DF, Saksena N, Wang B, Sonza S, Wesselingh SL, Karlsson I, Fenyo EM, Gabuzda D, Cunningham AL, Gorry PR
Retrovirology. 2007 Dec; 4:89
- Phenotype and envelope gene diversity of nef-deleted HIV-1 isolated from long-term survivors infected from a single source.
Gray L, Churchill MJ, Sterjovski J, Witlox K, Learmont JC, Sullivan JS, Wesselingh SL, Gabuzda D, Cunningham AL, McPhee DA, Gorry PR
Virol J. 2007 Jul; 4:75
- Transcriptional activity of blood-and cerebrospinal fluid-derived nef/long-terminal repeat sequences isolated from a slow progressor infected with nef-deleted human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) who developed HIV-associated dementia.
Churchill MJ, Figueiredo A, Cowley D, Gray L, Purcell DF, Sullivan JS, McPhee DA, Wesselingh SL, Brew BJ, Gorry PR
J Neurovirol. 2006 Jun; 12(3):219-228
- CXCR4 or CCR5 tropism of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates does not determine the immunological milieu in patients responding to antiretroviral therapy.
Price P, Keane N, Gray L, Lee S, Gorry PR, French MA
Viral Immunol. 2006 Jun; 19(4):734-740
- Genetic and functional analysis of R5X4 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoproteins derived from two individuals homozygous for the CCR5delta32 allele.
Gray L, Churchill MJ, Keane N, Sterjovski J, Ellett AM, Purcell DF, Poumbourios P, Kol C, Wang B, Saksena NK, Wesselingh SL, Price P, French M, Gabuzda D, Gorry PR
J Virol. 2006 Apr; 80(7):3684-3691
- Longitudinal analysis of nef/long terminal repeat-deleted HIV-1 in blood and cerebrospinal fluid of a long-term survivor who developed HIV-associated dementia.
Churchill M, Sterjovski J, Gray L, Cowley D, Chatfield C, Learmont J, Sullivan JS, Crowe SM, Mills J, Brew BJ, Wesselingh SL, McPhee DA, Gorry PR
J Infect Dis. 2004 Dec; 190(12):2181-2186
- The role of viral coreceptors and enhanced macrophage tropism in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 disease progression.
Gorry PR, Sterjovski J, Churchill M, Witlox K, Gray L, Cunningham A, Wesselingh S
Sex Health. 2004 Jan; 1(1):23-34