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Functional naive T-cells are critical for an effective immune response to multiple pathogens.
HIV leads to a significant reduction in CD4+ naive T-cell number and impaired function and there is incomplete recovery following combination antiretroviral therapy (cART).
Here we review the basic homeostatic mechanisms that maintain naive CD4+ T-cells and discuss recent developments in understanding the impact of HIV infection on naive CD4+ T-cells.
Finally we review therapeutic interventions in HIV-infected individuals aimed at specifically enhancing recovery of naive CD4+ T-cells.