Publications & Reports

Immunization with inactivated whole virus particle influenza virus vaccines improves the humoral response landscape in cynomolgus macaques.

Chua BY, Sekiya T, Koutsakos M, Nomura N, Rowntree LC, Nguyen THO, McQuilten HA, Ohno M, Ohara Y, Nishimura T, Endo M, Itoh Y, Habel JR, Selva KJ, Wheatley AK, Wines BD, Hogarth PM, Kent SJ, Chung AW, Jackson DC, Brown LE, Shingai M, Kedzierska K, Kida H
Global Station for Zoonosis Control, Global Institution for Collaborative Research and Education (GI-CoRE) Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.


Although antibody-inducing split virus vaccines (SV) are currently the most effective way to combat seasonal influenza, their efficacy can be modest, especially in immunologically-naive individuals. We investigated immune responses towards inactivated whole influenza virus particle vaccine (WPV) formulations, predicated to be more immunogenic, in a non-human primate model, as an important step towards clinical testing in humans. Comprehensive analyses were used to capture 46 immune parameters to profile how WPV-induced responses differed to those elicited by antigenically-similar SV formulations. Naive cynomolgus macaques vaccinated with either monovalent or quadrivalent WPV consistently induced stronger antibody responses and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titres against vaccine-matched viruses compared to SV formulations, while acute reactogenic effects were similar. Responses in WPV-primed animals were further increased by boosting with the same formulation, conversely to modest responses after priming and boosting with SV. 28-parameter multiplex bead array defined key antibody features and showed that while both WPV and SV induced elevated IgG responses against A/H1N1 nucleoprotein, only WPV increased IgG responses against A/H1N1 hemagglutinin (HA) and HA-Stem, and higher IgA responses to A/H1N1-HA after each vaccine dose. Antibodies to A/H1N1-HA and HA-Stem that could engage FcgammaR2a and FcgammaR3a were also present at higher levels after one dose of WPV compared to SV and remained elevated after the second dose. Furthermore, WPV-enhanced antibody responses were associated with higher frequencies of HA-specific B-cells and IFN-gamma-producing CD4+ T-cell responses. Our data additionally demonstrate stronger boosting of HI titres by WPV following prior infection and support WPV administered as a priming dose irrespective of the follow up vaccine for the second dose. Our findings thus show that compared to SV vaccination, WPV-induced humoral responses are significantly increased in scope and magnitude, advocating WPV vaccination regimens for priming immunologically-naive individuals and also in the event of a pandemic outbreak.

Link to publisher’s web site


  • Journal: PLoS Pathogens
  • Published: 07/10/2022
  • Volume: 18
  • Issue: 10
  • Pagination: e1010891