Publications & Reports

Defective Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Immune Responses in an Immunocompromised Individual With Prolonged Viral Replication.

Claire L Gordon, Olivia C Smibert, Natasha E Holmes, Kyra Y L Chua, Morgan Rose, George Drewett, Fiona James, Effie Mouhtouris, Thi H O Nguyen, Wuji Zhang, Lukasz Kedzierski, Louise C Rowntree, Brendon Y Chua, Leon Caly, Mike G Catton, Julian Druce, Michelle Sait, Torsten Seemann, Norelle L Sherry, Benjamin P Howden, Katherine Kedzierska, Jason C Kwong, Jason A Trubiano
Department of Infectious Diseases, Austin Hospital, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia.


We describe severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific immune responses in a patient with lymphoma and recent programmed death 1 (PD-1) inhibitor therapy with late onset of severe coronavirus disease 2019 disease and prolonged SARS-CoV-2 replication, in comparison to age-matched and immunocompromised controls. High levels of HLA-DR(+)/CD38(+) activation, interleukin 6, and interleukin 18 in the absence of B cells and PD-1 expression was observed. SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody responses were absent and SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells were minimally detected. This case highlights challenges in managing immunocompromised hosts who may fail to mount effective virus-specific immune responses.


  • Journal: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
  • Published: 01/09/2021
  • Volume: 8
  • Issue: 9
  • Pagination: ofab359