Cervical cancer, caused by HPV infection, is responsible for more than 311 000 preventable deaths every year. A global call to accelerate efforts to eliminate this disease has generated a new global strategy proposing ambitious, but achievable, targets for HPV vaccination of girls, and screening and treatment of women. The present paper addresses the suboptimal access to HPV vaccination in low-income and lower-middle-income countries (LICs/LMICs), where the burden of disease weighs most heavily, in part through co-infection with HIV. A proposed framework for action was formulated by first reviewing the reasons underlying gaps in HPV vaccine coverage. Good practices from recent introductions of HPV vaccine at scale in LICs/LMICs were then assessed based on targeted literature reviews and the experience and views of the authors. Difficulties in uptake and coverage of the HPV vaccine relate to the costs of the vaccine and service delivery, lack of prioritization, the challenges of vaccinating adolescents, and shortage of vaccines as the supply failed to keep pace with the rapid expansion in global demand, including from LICs/LMICs. The framework for action calls for new strategic thinking to consolidate global learning and invigorate operationalization at a country level.
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