Publications & Reports

Advanced HIV disease in the Botswana combination prevention project: prevalence, risk factors, and outcomes.

Lebelonyane R, Mills LA, Mogorosi C, Ussery F, Marukutira T, Theu J, Kapanda M, Matambo S, Block L, Raizes E, Makhema J, Lockman S, Bachanas P, Moore J, Jarvis JN
Botswana Ministry of Health and Wellness, Gaborone, Botswana.


OBJECTIVE(S): To determine the proportion of individuals linking to HIV-care with advanced HIV-disease (CD4 </=200 cells/muL) in the Botswana Combination Prevention Project, describe the characteristics of these individuals, and examine treatment outcomes. DESIGN: A sub-analysis of a cluster-randomized HIV-prevention trial. HIV status was assessed in 16-64-year-olds through home and mobile testing. All HIV-positive persons not on antiretroviral-therapy (ART) were referred to local Ministry of Health and Wellness clinics for treatment. METHODS: Analysis was restricted to the 15 intervention clusters. The proportion of individuals with advanced HIV disease was determined; associations between advanced HIV disease and sex and age explored; and rates of viral suppression determined at 1-year. Mortality and retention in care were compared between CD4 strata (CD4 </=200 cells/muL vs. > 200 cells/muL). RESULTS: Overall, 17.2% (430/2,499; 95% confidence interval [CI] 15.7-18.8%) of study participants had advanced HIV disease (CD4 </=200 cells/muL) at time of clinic linkage. Men were significantly more likely to present with CD4 </=200 cells/muL than women (23.7% versus 13.4%, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.9, 95% CI 1.5-2.3). The risk of advanced HIV disease increased with increasing age (aOR 2.2, 95% CI 1.4-3.2 > 35 years versus < 25 years). Patients with CD4 </=200 cells/muL had significantly higher rates of attrition from care during follow-up (hazards ratio 1.47, 95% CI 1.1-2.1). CONCLUSIONS: Advanced HIV disease due to late presentation to or disengagement from ART care remains common in the Treat All era in Botswana, calling for innovative testing, linkage, and treatment strategies to engage and retain harder-to-reach populations in care.

Link to publisher’s web site


  • Journal: AIDS
  • Published: 17/07/2020
  • Volume: 34
  • Issue: 15
  • Pagination: 2223-2230