Setting: Papua New Guinea (PNG), a low-resource
country with a high tuberculosis (TB) burden.
Objective: To describe the characteristics, treatment outcomes and risk factors for unfavourable outcomes among
patients registered for first-line tuberculosis (TB) treatment between 1 January 2014 and 31 December 2016 in
West Sepik Province.
Design: This was a retrospective cohort study of routinely collected programme data.
Results: Of 1058 cases, 50.7% were male and 38.8%
were aged <15 years; 43.1% were extrapulmonary TB
cases and 280 (26.5%) were bacteriologically confirmed.
No human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status was recorded for 74.7% of cases. Of 1019 (96.3%) patients
with a recorded outcome, 779 (76.4%) were favourable
and 240 (23.6%) were unfavourable. On multivariable logistic regression, increasing age was associated with an
increased odds of an unfavourable outcome (adjusted OR
[aOR] 1.06 per every 5-year increase, 95%CI 1.02–1.11;
P = 0.006) and being a retreatment case was associated
with a reduced odds of an unfavourable outcome compared to new cases (aOR 0.54, 95%CI 0.31–0.93; P =
Conclusion: This study identified substantial gaps in TB
care, including low rates of bacteriological diagnosis and
HIV testing, and high rates of loss to follow-up, highlighting the need to strengthen TB control efforts, including
support for new cases.
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