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OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the prevalence and risks of late fetal deaths (LFDs) and early neonatal deaths (ENDs) in women with medical and obstetric complications. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of the WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health (WHOMCS). SETTING: A total of 359 participating facilities in 29 countries. POPULATION: A total of 308 392 singleton deliveries. METHODS: We reported on perinatal indicators and determined risks of perinatal death in the presence of severe maternal complications (haemorrhagic, infectious, and hypertensive disorders, and other medical conditions). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Fresh and macerated LFDs (defined as stillbirths >/= 1000 g and/or >/=28 weeks of gestation) and ENDs. RESULTS: The LFD rate was 17.7 per 1000 births; 64.8% were fresh stillbirths. The END rate was 8.4 per 1000 liveborns; 67.1% occurred by day 3 of life. Maternal complications were present in 22.9, 27.7, and 21.2% [corrected] of macerated LFDs, fresh LFDs, and ENDs, respectively. The risks of all three perinatal mortality outcomes were significantly increased with placental abruption, ruptured uterus, systemic infections/sepsis, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, and severe anaemia. CONCLUSIONS: Preventing intrapartum-related perinatal deaths requires a comprehensive approach to quality intrapartum care, beyond the provision of caesarean section. Early identification and management of women with complications could improve maternal and perinatal outcomes.