Publications & Reports

Does provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling lead to higher HIV testing rate and HIV case finding in Rwandan clinics?

Felix R Kayigamba, Daniela Van Santen, Mirjam I Bakker, Judith Lammers, Veronicah Mugisha, Emmanuel Bagiruwigize, Ludwig De Naeyer, Anita Asiimwe, Maarten F Schim Van Der Loeff
INTERACT, Kigali, Rwanda. [email protected]


BACKGROUND: Provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling (PITC) is promoted as a means to increase HIV case finding. We assessed the effectiveness of PITC to increase HIV testing rate and HIV case finding among outpatients in Rwandan health facilities (HF). METHODS: PITC was introduced in six HFs in 2009-2010. HIV testing rate and case finding were compared between phase 1 (pre-PITC) and phase 3 (PITC period) for outpatient-department (OPD) attendees only, and for OPD and voluntary counseling & testing (VCT) departments combined. RESULTS: Out of 26,367 adult OPD attendees in phase 1, 4.7% were tested and out of 29,864 attendees in phase 3, 17.0% were tested (p < 0.001). The proportion of HIV cases diagnosed was 0.25% (67/26,367) in phase 1 and 0.46% (136/29864) in phase 3 (p < 0.001). In multivariable analysis, both testing rate and case finding were significantly higher in phase 3 for OPD attendees. In phase 1 most of the HIV testing was done in VCT departments rather than at the OPD (78.6% vs 21.4% respectively); in phase 3 this was reversed (40.0% vs 60.0%; p < 0.001). In a combined analysis of VCT and OPD attendees, testing rate increased from 18.7% in phase 1 to 25.4% in phase 3, but case finding did not increase. In multivariable analysis, testing rate was significantly higher in phase 3 (OR 1.67; 95% CI 1.60-1.73), but case finding remained stable (OR 1.09; 95% CI 0.93-1.27). CONCLUSION: PITC led to a shift of HIV testing from VCT department to the OPD, a higher testing rate, but no additional HIV case finding.


  • Journal: BMC Infectious Diseases
  • Published: 25/01/2016
  • Volume: 16
  • Pagination: 26