Publications & Reports

Dotting the Three I's for collaborative TB-HIV activities: evaluation of a pilot programme in Kathmandu, Nepal.

Sah SK, Sahu SK, Lamichhane B, Bhatta GK, Bhandari KB, Owiti P, Majumdar SS


Setting: The three government tertiary care hospitals providing care for people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) in Kathmandu, Nepal. Objectives: To assess 1) the screening cascades for intensified case finding for tuberculosis (TB), 2) isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT), including demographic and clinical factors associated with treatment interruption, and 3) TB infection control (IC) in the health facilities. Design: A cross-sectional study of new PLHIV enrolled from January 2012 to December 2014. Results: Among 572 registered PLHIV, 91% were on antiretroviral therapy. Of those registered, 561 (98%) were screened for TB and 73 (13%) were diagnosed with TB (17 [25%] sputum smear-positive, 17 [25%] smear-negative and 35 [51%] extra-pulmonary). Among the 488 (87%) PLHIV without active TB, 157 (32%) were initiated on IPT, of whom 136 (87%) completed treatment and 17 (11%) interrupted treatment. Those who experienced adverse events were 12 times more likely to interrupt IPT. TB IC showed gaps in personal control measures and supporting structures and policies. Conclusion: The implementation of the Three I’s for collaborative TB-HIV activities in pilot sites in Nepal was successful and should be scaled up.

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This research was conducted through the Structured Operational Research and Training Initiative (SORT IT), a global partnership led by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases at the World Health Organization (WHO/TDR). The model is based on a course developed jointly by the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union) and Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF). The specific SORT IT programme that resulted in this publication was jointly developed and implemented by The Union South-East Asia Regional Office, New Delhi, India; the Centre for Operational Research, The Union, Paris, France; the Operational Research Unit (LUXOR), MSF, Brussels Operational Centre, Luxembourg; the School of Public Health, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India; the Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research, Puducherry, India; and the Burnet Institute, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

The programme was funded by The Union and the Department for International Development, London, UK.


  • Journal: Public Health Action
  • Published: 01/09/2016
  • Volume: 6
  • Issue: 3
  • Pagination: 169-175