On 18 July 2014, the National Institute of Mental Health in collaboration with ViiV Health Care and Boehringer Ingelheim supported a symposium on HIV eradication and what it meant for the brain. The symposium was an affiliated event to the 20th International AIDS Conference. The meeting was held in Melbourne, Australia, and brought together investigators currently working on HIV eradication together with investigators who are working on the neurological complications of HIV. The purpose of the meeting was to bring the two fields of HIV eradication and HIV neurology together to foster dialogue and cross talk to move the eradication field forward in the context of issues relating to the brain as a potential reservoir of HIV. The outcomes of the symposium were that there was substantive but not definitive evidence for the brain as an HIV reservoir that will provide a challenge to HIV eradication. Secondly, the brain as a clinically significant reservoir for HIV is not necessarily present in all patients. Consequently, there is an urgent need for the development of biomarkers to identify and quantify the HIV reservoir in the brain. Lastly, when designing and developing eradication strategies, it is critical that approaches to target the brain reservoir be included.