Ampligen, a known immunomodulator and interferon inducer, was used alone and in combination with other antiviral agents to treat ducks congenitally-infected with duck hepatitis B virus. These antiviral agents included the conventional nucleoside analogue ganciclovir and the prokaryotic DNA gyrase B inhibitor coumermycin A1. When used alone, ampligen decreased the amount of serum and liver viral DNA, but had no effect on circulating duck hepatitis B surface antigen (DHBsAg). In combination with ganciclovir, the antiviral effect appeared at least additive with a greater inhibition of viral DNA replication within the liver. The combination of ampligen with coumermycin A1 also resulted in inhibition of viral replication but to a lesser extent than ampligen alone. When all three agents were used together, viral DNA replication was again inhibited, but as with previous treatment regimes, serum DHBsAg levels remained unchanged. At the end of the treatment period for all regimes, analysis of viral DNA forms in the liver showed that the viral relaxed circular and supercoiled DNA forms had persisted. Within 1 week of cessation of therapy, viral replication had often returned to pre-treatment levels. Interferon-like activity was detected in the sera of the majority of the treated ducks during the ampligen therapy, but no clear relationship between the presence of interferon and antiviral effect could be established. These observations in the duck hepatitis B model may provide a rational basis for the use of combinations of antiviral and immunomodulatory regimes for the management of chronic hepatitis B infection in man.