Immunotherapy with oxidized mannan-MUC1 fusion protein (M-FP) leads to a T1 immune response characterized by the generation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), few antibodies, secretion of interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-12, and interferon-gamma and tumor protection. Immunotherapy with reduced M-FP or fusion protein (FP) alone leads to a T2 immune response characterized by the generation of MUC1 antibodies, few CTL, IL-4 secretion, and no tumor protection. In these studies, cytokine production from T cells was measured from cultures containing whole spleens. We now report the cytokine secretion patterns from spleen cells separated into CD4+ and CD8+ T cells obtained from mice immunized with either oxidized M-FP, reduced M-FP or FP, or the simultaneous administration of oxidized M-FP and FP. Immunization with oxidized M-FP led to the secretion of T1 cytokines from CD8+ T cells (IL-2, IFN-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-alpha]) and from CD4+ T cells (IL-2 and IFN-gamma). IL-12 production, presumably from activated macrophages, was observed in CD8+ but not CD4+ cultures. Immunization with either reduced M-FP or FP led to the secretion of predominantly T2 cytokines from CD4+ T cells (IL-4 and IL-10) and IL-2 production in both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell cultures. The simultaneous immunization of both oxidized M-FP and FP led to the production of both T1 and T2 cytokines from CD8+ T cells (IL-2, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha) and CD4+ cells (IL-2, IFN-gamma, IL-4, and IL-10) and IL-12 production in CD8+ cultures that is, both types of immune responses could occur together. The results demonstrate that the cellular immune response observed in oxidized M-FP-immunized mice is indeed dependent on the T1 cytokine profile secreted by CD8+ T cells, and the simultaneous production of both T1 and T2 cytokines is not cross-inhibitory.