We have reported previously a cohort of long-term survivors of HIV-1 infection, known as the Sydney Blood Bank Cohort, who received HIV-1-positive blood from a common infected donor. A new recipient, C135, has been identified. This recipient became infected after receiving blood donated during the presumed time of seroconversion of the donor in February 1981. C135 has been infected for more than 18 years without signs of disease progression. The virus load in this recipient has remained below the detectable level (<20 RNA copies/ml of plasma) and repeated Western blot analyses have given an indeterminate result. By booster PCR techniques we have demonstrated that this individual is infected with HIV-1 and have characterized the viral nef and nef/LTR region sequences present. The strain of HIV-1 identified contains deletions of 88 bp from the nef alone region and a total of 139 bp deleted from the nef/LTR overlap and LTR regions. The LTR contains three wild-type Sp1 transcription factor-binding sites, the 3' wildtype NF-kappaB site, and a duplicated Sp1 and NF-kappaB region. A truncated Nef protein of only 19 amino acids is encoded. The deletions and rearrangements in the nef gene and LTR sequences are characteristic of Sydney Blood Bank Cohort strains of virus. The identification of C135 increases the Sydney Blood Bank Cohort size to nine individuals and represents a rare example of a genuine, long-term HIV-1 infection accompanied by indeterminate anti-HIV-1 serology.