Publications & Reports

CTL granules: evolution of vesicles essential for combating virus infections.

Trapani JA, Sutton VR, Smyth MJ
Austin Research Institute, Studley Road, Heidelberg 3084, Australia. [email protected]


Viral strategies for escaping apoptosis have co-evolved with the immune system, resulting in a complex balance of pro- and anti-apoptotic forces in virus-infected cells under attack by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Here, Joseph Trapani and colleagues argue that CTL cytolytic granules are the principal apoptotic means of eliminating viruses and possess multiple independent mechanisms to counter the viral anti-apoptotic machinery.


  • Journal: Immunology Today
  • Published: 01/08/1999
  • Volume: 20
  • Issue: 8
  • Pagination: 351-356