Monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells play an important role in the initial infection and contribute to its pathogenesis throughout the course of infection. Myeloid cells express CD4 and chemokine receptors known for HIV-1 fusion and entry. The beta-chemokine receptor, CCR5, is the major co-receptor in conjunction with CD4 for macrophage (M)-tropic or (R5) isolates of HIV-1, whereas the alpha-chemokine receptor, CXCR4, facilitates entry of T-tropic or (X4) HIV-1 strains. Cells of myeloid lineage may be infected predominantly with R5- strains, although infection with dual-tropic isolates of HIV-1 (exhibiting the capacity to use CCR-5 and/or CXCR-4 for entry) or some strains of X4- isolates has also been reported. The expression of chemokine receptors, HIV-1 infection and replication is under continuous regulation by a complex cytokine network produced by a variety of cells. The effects of cytokines/chemokines on HIV-1 replication in cells of myeloid lineage can be inhibitory (IFN-alpha, IFN-beta, IFN-gamma, GM-CSF, IL-10, IL-13 and IL-16 and beta-chemokines), stimulatory (M-CSF, TNF-alpha, TNF-beta, IL-1, IL-6) or bifunction al, that is both inhibitory and stimulatory (IL-4). This review focuses on the overall expression of chemokine receptors on cells of myeloid lineage and considers the mechanisms of entry of R5-, X4- and dual-tropic strains of HIV-1 into these cells. The effects of cytokines/chemokines on viral entry and productive HIV-1 infection are also reviewed.