Publications & Reports

Effect of GM-CSF on HIV-1 replication in monocytes/macrophages in vivo and in vitro: a review.

Kedzierska K, Rainbird MA, Lopez AF, Crowe SM
Macfarlane Burnet Centre for Medical Research, Victoria, Australia. [email protected]


Cells of macrophage lineage constitute the main cellular target of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1). Replication of HIV-1 in monocyte/macrophages is generally augmented by factors promoting their differentiation. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a key regular of the differentiation of cells of macrophage lineage. The effects of GM-CSF on HIV-1 replication in vitro are still controversial. Most of the published studies suggest that GM-CSF upregulates HIV-1 expression in both primary cultured macrophages and promonocytic cell lines. There have also been reports demonstrating that GM-CSF does not affect HIV-1 replication in cells of macrophage lineage or that GM-CSF can actually suppress HIV-1 expression. In vivo, GM-CSF administrated to HIV-positive patients at any stage of disease, without any antiretroviral therapy, appears to increase HIV-1 activity. The possible mechanism by which GM-CSF might affect HIV-1 replication in macrophages remains unclear.


  • Journal: Veterinary immunology and immunopathology
  • Published: 15/05/1998
  • Volume: 63
  • Issue: 1-2
  • Pagination: 111-121

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