Dendritic cell (DC) immunotherapy is being actively studied in multiple myeloma (MM). We aimed to use positron emission tomography or single positron emission tomography to determine the in vivo distribution of monocyte-derived nonmatured DC or matured DC (mDC) administered to patients with MM. Eligible patients had stable or slowly progressive MM and elevated serum MUC-1 or MUC-1 expression on marrow plasma cells. DCs were derived from granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor+ interleukin-13 stimulated autologous monocytes, pulsed with mannan-MUC1 fusion protein, and matured by FMKp and interferon-gamma. Before injection, DCs were labeled with either 18fluorine-fluorodeoxyglucose, 111indium-oxine or 64copper-pyruvaldehyde-bis-N-4-methylthiosemicarbazone. Labeled DCs were given either as a single intravenous dose or by concurrent subcutaneous (SC), intradermal (ID), and intranodal routes. 18Fluorine-fluorodeoxyglucose tracking was unsuccessful owing to high radiolabel efflux. 64Copper-pyruvaldehyde-bis-N-4-methylthiosemicarbazone-labeled mDC (n=2 patients) demonstrated tracking to regional nodes but quantitation was also limited owing to cellular efflux. 111Indium-oxine, however, gave reproducible tracking of both nmDc and mDC (n=6) to regional lymph node after either SC or ID administration, with mDC revealing superior migration to regional lymph node. SC and ID routes produced similar levels of DC migration.