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We recently reported that Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes (IRBCs) can adhere to hyaluronic acid (HA), which appears to be a receptor, in addition to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA), for parasite sequestration in the placenta. Further investigations of the nature and specificity of this interaction indicate that HA oligosaccharide fragments competitively inhibit parasite adhesion to immobilized purified HA in a size-dependent manner, with dodecasaccharides being the minimum size for maximum inhibition. Rigorously purified and structurally defined HA dodecasaccharides, free of contamination by CSA or other glycosaminoglycans, effectively inhibited IRBC adhesion to HA but not CSA, providing compelling evidence of a specific interaction between IRBCs and HA.