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Uncoupling coreceptor usage of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) from macrophage tropism reveals biological properties of CCR5-restricted HIV-1 isolates from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

Gray L, Sterjovski J, Churchill M, Ellery P, Nasr N, Lewin SR, Crowe SM, Wesselingh SL, Cunningham AL, Gorry PR

  • Journal Virology

  • Published 07 Sep 2005

  • Volume 337

  • ISSUE 2

  • Pagination 384-98

  • DOI 10.1016/j.virol.2005.04.034


The mechanisms underlying the pathogenicity of CCR5-restricted (R5) human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) strains are incompletely understood. Acquisition or enhancement of macrophage (M)-tropism by R5 viruses contributes to R5 HIV-1 pathogenesis. In this study, we show that M-tropic R5 viruses isolated from individuals with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (late R5 viruses) require lower levels of CD4/CCR5 expression for entry, have decreased sensitivity to inhibition by the entry inhibitors TAK-779 and T-20, and have increased sensitivity to neutralization by the Env MAb IgG1b12 compared with non-M-tropic R5 viruses isolated from asymptomatic, immunocompetent individuals (early R5 viruses). Augmenting CCR5 expression levels on monocyte-derived macrophages via retroviral transduction led to a complete or marginal restoration of M-tropism by early R5 viruses, depending on the viral strain. Thus, reduced CD4/CCR5 dependence is a phenotype of R5 HIV-1 associated with M-tropism and late stage infection, which may affect the efficacy of HIV-1 entry inhibitors.