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The triumvirate of signaling molecules controlling Toxoplasma microneme exocytosis: Cyclic GMP, calcium, and phosphatidic acid.

Bullen HE, Bisio H, Soldati-Favre D

  • Journal PLoS pathogens

  • Published 23 May 2019

  • Volume 15

  • ISSUE 5

  • Pagination e1007670

  • DOI 10.1371/journal.ppat.1007670


To elicit effective invasion and egress from infected cells, obligate intracellular parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa rely on the timely and spatially controlled exocytosis of specialized secretory organelles termed the micronemes. The effector molecules and signaling events underpinning this process are intricate; however, recent advances within the field of Toxoplasma gondii research have facilitated a broader understanding as well as a more integrated view of this complex cascade of events and have unraveled the importance of phosphatidic acid (PA) as a lipid mediator at multiple steps in this process.