Data on 259 notified cases of genital chlamydia infection diagnosed in Victoria Australia in January and February 1995 were augmented by call-back. Risk factor data was available for 221. Patients were primarily adolescents or young adults (median age 23 years); 66% were women. Men were more commonly symptomatic. Persons without symptoms were tested as a result of partner notification, sexual risk, termination of pregnancy, or because of abnormalities on genital examination. Limitations of antigen-based screening tests in low prevalence populations were rarely considered. Although antimicrobial treatment usually accorded with available guidelines, case management was not well geared to reducing the broader issue of risk of this infection in the community. Data management systems for handling name-coded data, and systems for recall and follow-up of diagnosed patients and their partners were often inadequate. Sexual history taking had not generally identified details of sexual partners. Partner notification was generally regarded as the patient's responsibility and professional help with contact tracing was rarely sought. Control of chlamydia will require much greater attention to management issues, particularly contact tracing.