Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infections are known to be hyperendemic in Nauru. Because of the consequences of chronic HBV infection, the Nauruan Government has commenced a program that aims to reduce and eventually eliminate hepatitis B infection by immunizing susceptible adults and children on the island and every newborn baby. At the outset of this program, a national seroepidemiological survey was undertaken. Eighty-eight percent of the population were tested, of whom 69.1% had markers of HBV infection. Evidence of superinfection with HDV was found in 22.7% of HBV carriers, with the highest prevalence in adolescents and young adults. All seronegative individuals were offered three doses of plasma derived hepatitis B vaccine. A post-vaccination survey of 64% of those vaccinated showed that 98% had developed circulating antibodies.