Combined vaccines have been advocated as an efficient method of paediatric vaccine delivery. This study examined the performance and cost implications for the use of combined DTP-HB vaccine in the Thai immunisation program. Separate DTP and HB and then combined DTP-HB vaccines were used in the infant immunisation program in Chiangrai Province during a 4-year period. DTP vaccination coverage was maintained with the combined vaccine and HB coverage was improved (95.7% for DTP-HB1, 95.2% for DTP-HB2 and 93.8% for DTP-HB3). Seroconversion rates for anti-HBs rose from a baseline of 88.4 to 94.8% with use of the combined vaccine. Seroconversion rates for anti-D (97.5%) and anti-P (89.6%) were higher in the separate vaccine regimen. Although this study was not able to demonstrate that DTP-HB vaccine was more cost saving than the vaccines given separately as baseline vaccine coverage was already high, in settings where coverage rates are much lower the increased cost of combined vaccines may be more justifiable.