Resistance to antimalarial chemotherapy is a major concern for malaria control in Viet Nam. In this study undertaken in 1998, 65 patients with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria were monitored for 28 days after completion of a 5-day treatment course with artemisinin. Overall 36.9% (24/65) of patients had recurrent parasitaemia during the surveillance period. P. falciparum isolates were tested for sensitivity in vitro to chloroquine, mefloquine, quinine, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and results were compared to those from a similar study in 1995. Increased parasite sensitivity to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, chloroquine and quinine was demonstrated, with significantly lower mean EC50 and EC99 values in 1998 compared to 1995. Parasite sensitivity to mefloquine did not differ significantly in the 2 surveys. Isolates were also tested for sensitivity in vitro to artemisinin in the 1998 survey. The mean EC50 was 0.03 mumol/L and the EC99 was 0.94 mumol/L. Parasite sensitivity to artemisinin will need to be monitored in view of its increasing use in Viet Nam.