The transmembrane (TM) region of the Fc receptor-gamma (FcRgamma) chain is responsible for the association of this ubiquitous signal transduction subunit with many immunoreceptor ligand binding chains, making FcRgamma key to a number of leukocyte activities in immunity and disease. Some receptors contain a TM arginine residue that interacts with Asp-11 of the FcRgamma subunit, but otherwise the molecular basis for the FcRgamma subunit interactions is largely unknown. This study reports residues in the TM region of the FcRgamma subunit are important for association with the high affinity IgE receptor FcepsilonRI and a leukocyte receptor cluster member, the IgA receptor FcalphaRI. FcRgamma residue Leu-21 was essential for surface expression of FcepsilonRIalpha/gamma2 and Tyr-8, Leu-14, and Phe-15 contributed to expression. Likewise, detergent-stable FcRgamma association with FcalphaRI was also dependent on Leu-14 and Leu-21 and in addition required residues Tyr-17, Tyr-25, and Cys-26. Modeling the TM regions of the FcRgamma dimer indicated these residues interacting with both FcalphaRI and FcepsilonRI are near the interface between the two FcRgamma TM helices. Furthermore, the FcRgamma residues interacting with FcalphaRI form a leucine zipper-like interface with mutagenesis confirming a complementary interface comprising FcalphaRI residues Leu-217, Leu-220, and Leu-224. The dependence of these two nonhomologous receptor interactions on FcRgamma Leu-14 and Leu-21 suggests that all the associated Fc receptors and the activating leukocyte receptor cluster members interact with this one site. Taken together these data provide a molecular basis for understanding how disparate receptor families assemble with the FcRgamma subunit.